Response to Intervention (RTI)

Targeted/Specific Screeners to go more in depth with possible interventions, if not met with Tier 1/universal screening tools  examples (Tier 2 & 3), not exhaustive. Recording Form for Screening – Class Profile


Phonemic Awareness (ability to hear, identify, & manipulate the individual sounds (phonemes) in spoken words)

Phonological Awareness Survey

Yopp-Singer Test of Phonemic Segmentation

Phonics (an understanding of the correspondences between phonemes (sounds of spoken language) & graphemes (letters & spellings representing sounds in written language)

Beginning Decoding Skills

Advanced Decoding Skills    

Quick Phonics Screener (Hasbrouck & Parker)

Possible Phonemic Awareness Interventions

Depending on the level or where the gap is the following activities may be appropriate: 

Use of tongue twisters, questions for isolating sounds, use picture clues, analogy of a train, clap & count syllables, tapping wand, ”I say it slowly, you say it fast”, use sets of known words, sound boxes, using compound words and word boxes, change words (by changing/removing a letter/sound) 

Possible Phonics Interventions

Depending on the level or where the gap is the following activities may be appropriate:

Explicit Instruction in formation in letters, Use post it notes for letters, Write to learn, Alphabet cards, Link sounds to letters and words, Sound boxes, Sound and picture boxes, Sounds and common letter blends, Cartoon cue cards (strategies), Use of decodable text, Make break and build words, Provide Practice


Fluency (ability to read a text with accuracy, speed, & proper expression, critical for reading comprehension)

Oral Reading Fluency Passages (from DIBELS Next)    

Daze (from DIBELS Next)  Calculating Accuracy of Word Recognition

The 6-Minute Solution (increasing fluency)

Vocabulary (Oral vocabulary – words the reader recognizes in listening & uses in speaking, Written vocabulary – words that the reader recognizes or uses in print)

High Frequency Words: 50 Words (Fountas & Pinnell)

High Frequency Words: 100 Words (Fountas & Pinnell)

High Frequency Words: 200 Words (Fountas & Pinnell)

Vocabulary Board by Dawn Reithaug

Comprehending Text (If there is a gap in any of the previous areas then the comprehension of the reading will be limited at best - strategies for comprehending text are schemes that students can use before, during & after reading to increase their understanding of what they are reading. The teaching of these strategies are intentional & explicit)

Accomplishments in Reading (k-3 checklist) adapted from NRC of the National Academy of Sciences report – Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children

Improving Reading Comprehension in Kindergarten Through 3rd Grade by Institute of Education Sciences

Scholastic 3 Minute Reading Assessment has specifics on comprehension, although this often comes from other means whether it is in class assessment, or a test such as the W-FAS.

Interview for Reading Strategies, Orally Retelling a Story (with scale) – recording sheets with general questions/prompts (Dawn Reithaug Order form – Orchestrating Success in Reading)

Possible Fluency Interventions

Depending on the level or where the gap is the following activities may be appropriate:

Repeated Oral Reading (various forms – with peers, teachers, starred passages, shared reading, cued reading, tape-assisted reading, paired reading, modelling), Read only highlighted words, Choral reading, Perform for others, Listen to books read by computer/CD, Read short selections from favourite/relevant, Reading buddy, Self- assessments, Five finger rule

Possible Vocabulary Interventions

Depending on the level or where the gap is the following activities may be appropriate:

Pre-Instructing Vocabulary words (illustrate and preview, etc), Analyzing roots and affixes (morphology, lists of prefixes & suffixes, common roots, breaking words apart), Semantic mapping, word maps, Making associations, analogies, illustrating, Using Contextual cues, Using dictionaries and glossaries, Wide exposure to reading, Elaborating instruction, Use of computer software specific to skill set, Revising text, Integrating passages, Mneumonic Techniques, Additional instruction in phonemic awareness and phonics, Various cue cards of strategies for students to refer to, with explicit teaching 

Possible Comprehending Interventions

Depending on the level or where the gap is the following activities may be appropriate:

Explicit cue cards, Story mapping, Picture relationships, Identify purpose for reading, Cue cards for “fix-it” strategies – bookmarks, etc, Making predications before and during reading, Previewing Text, Activating background knowledge, Think out-louds, Graphic organizers for elements of story, analyzing characters, etc


Free Resources for Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM)


intervention central.png  Curriculum-Based Measurement , browse the page to find CBM materials to conduct school-wide

screenings and monitor student progress. Or review one of the featured manuals to learn how to use CBMs in schools and to interpret the results to make good RTI decisions

Curriculum-Based Measurement: A Manual for Teachers (Wright, 2004)

new_lite_logo_white.pngEasy CBM (benchmarking and progress monitoring assessments for reading and math - grades K through 8)

Untitled.pngUsing CBM to determine Response to Intervention free training modules from National Center on RTI: Educators can use these modules for independent study or in professional development settings to increase their understanding using CBM to determine RTI . 

Chart Dog - creates charts from CBM data (Wright, 2005)


Validated Forms of Progress Monitoring in Reading and Mathematics(Fuchs, 2006) provided by RTI network

Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM): Reading and Writing Measures in Secondary Education (University of Minnesota, 2005) provided by RTI network

Using CBM-Reading Assessments to Monitor Progress (Jenkins, Hudson, & Lee, 2007) provided by Research Institute on Progress Monitoring

NCII-logo.pngAcademic Progress MonitoringThis tools chart presents information about academic progress monitoring tools. The three tabs, Psychometric StandardsProgress Monitoring Standards, and Data-based Individualization Standards

NCII-logo.pngAcademic Intervention Program chart: This tools chart presents information about studies that have been conducted about academic intervention programs. 




National Cener on Response to Intervention  find all you need to know about Response to Intervention 

 Edmonton Regional Learning Consortium (ERLC)  wiki* RTI resources


intervention_central.pngIntervention Central provides teachers, schools and districts with free resources to help struggling learners and implement Response to Intervention.




RTI Action Network is dedicated to the effective implementation of Response to Intervention (RTI) to guide educators and families in the large-scale implementation of RTI so that each child has access to quality instruction 



DRAFT*  A Guide for Implementing

Three Tiers of Instruction and Intervention for Reading


This booklet is intended to support school staffs in implementing a three-tiered system of instruction and intervention for reading based on the Response-to-Intervention (RtI) literature.  They can use this as a means to generate conversation about what this system could look like in their school, and to record their collaborative brainstorming. 


This booklet describes five stages* for implementation.  These occur within a three to five year time frame.  The time frames below are flexible, and can overlap.




time frame



  • over 2 to 6 months



  • over the next 6 months


Initial Implementation

  • within next 1 to 2 years


Full Implementation

  • within year 3



  • throughout years 3 to 5











*stages adapted from articles by Susan Hall and available from the RTI Action Network

The items listed in each stage, on pages 2 to 6, are not meant to be exhaustive.  They are to guide participants in discussing some of the essentials that need to be in place, over time, to implement a three-tired system for reading.  Collective knowledge, understanding, and implementation of this system is ongoing, and, because of this, other items may be added to each stage.


Note: Within each stage, include continuing professional development and adequate coaching, and allow enough time for teachers to collect and analyze data, collaborate with each other, and refine their planning. 

Here is the full booklet is available in word format and pdf


Dawn Reithaug session handouts are accessible to Black Gold Staff only. Use your Black Gold e-mail to access the linked files:


Orchestrating Success in Reading grades K to 6

Supporting Adolescent Readers grades 5 to 12

Educational Assistants Providing Academic Supports

Educational Assistants Providing Behavioural Supports